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This is a case of the relational model concept of access plans. Since SQL is declarative, there are typically a number of alternative ways to execute a given query.
When a query is submitted to the database, the query optimizer evaluates some of the different, correct possible plans for executing the query and returns what it considers the best option. Because query optimizers are imperfect, database users and administrators sometimes need to examine and tune the plans produced by the optimizer to get better performance.
A given database management system may offer one or more mechanisms for returning the plan for a given query, some packages feature tools which will generate a graphical representation of a query plan. Other tools allow a special mode to be set on the connection to cause the DBMS to return a description of the query plan.
Another mechanism for retrieving the query plan involves querying a database table after executing the query to be examined. In Oracle, for instance, this can be achieved using the EXPLAIN PLAN statement, the resulting rows from each side will be shown to a nested loops join operator, sorted, then returned as the result set to the connection.
Reviewing the query plan can present opportunities for new indexes or changes to existing indexes and it can also show that the database is not properly taking advantage of existing indexes. A query optimizer will not always choose the most efficient query plan for a given query, in some databases the query plan can be reviewed, problems found, and then the query optimizer gives hints on how to improve it.
In other databases alternatives to express the same query can be tried, some query tools can generate embedded hints in the query, for use by the optimizer. Some databases - like Oracle - provide a table for query tuning. File descriptors form part of the POSIX application programming interface, a file descriptor is a non-negative integer, generally represented in the C programming language as the type int.
This table records the mode with which the file has been opened, for reading, writing, appending and it also indexes into a third table called the inode table that describes the actual underlying files. To perform input or output, the passes the file descriptor to the kernel through a system call. The process does not have access to the file or inode tables. As well as files, this includes directories, block and character devices, Unix domain sockets.
File descriptors can refer to other objects that do not normally exist in the file system, such as anonymous pipes. The fcntl function is used to various operations on a file descriptor.
Openat faccessat fchmodat fchownat fstatat futimesat linkat mkdirat mknodat readlinkat renameat symlinkat unlinkat mkfifoat fdopendir Unix file descriptors behave in ways as capabilities. They can be passed between processes across Unix domain sockets using the system call. Note, however, that what is actually passed is a reference to an open file description that has mutable state, in operating systems that are specifically designed as capability systems, there is very rarely any mutable state associated with a capability itself.
A Unix process file descriptor table is an example of a C-list. The JDBC driver gives out the connection to the database and implements the protocol for transferring the query, JDBC technology drivers fit into one of four categories. Also, use of this leads to other installation dependencies, for example, ODBC must be installed on the computer having the driver.
The use of driver is discouraged if the alternative of a pure-Java driver is available. The other implication is that any application using a type 1 driver is given the binding between the driver and platform. This technology isnt suitable for a high-transaction environment, Type 1 drivers also dont support the complete Java command set and are limited by the functionality of the ODBC driver.
JdbcOdbcDriver and this driver is native code and not Java, and is closed source. In such cases, the order in which the drivers are tested is significant because the DriverManager will use the first driver it finds that can connect to the given URL. First the DriverManager tries to use each driver in the order it was registered and it will skip any drivers that are untrusted code unless they have been loaded from the same source as the code that is trying to open the connection.
It tests the drivers by calling the method Driver. The first driver that recognizes the URL makes the connection, almost any database for which an ODBC driver is installed can be accessed, and data can be retrieved. Not suitable for applets, because the ODBC driver needs to be installed on the client, specific ODBC drivers are not always available on all platforms, hence, portability of this driver is limited.
Adapter pattern — In software engineering, the adapter pattern is a software design pattern that allows the interface of an existing class to be used as another interface. It is often used to existing classes work with others without modifying their source code. An example is an adapter that converts the interface of a Document Object Model of an XML document into a structure that can be displayed.
An adapter allows two incompatible interfaces to work together and this is the real world definition for an adapter. Interfaces may be incompatible, but the functionality should suit the need. The Adapter design pattern allows otherwise incompatible classes to work together by converting the interface of one class into an interface expected by the clients, an adapter can be used when the wrapper must respect a particular interface and must support polymorphic behavior.
Alternatively, a decorator makes it possible to add or alter behavior of an interface at run-time, there are two adapter patterns, In this adapter pattern, the adapter contains an instance of the class it wraps.
In this situation, the adapter makes calls to the instance of the wrapped object and this adapter pattern uses multiple polymorphic interfaces implementing or inheriting both the interface that is expected and the interface that is pre-existing. It is typical for the interface to be created as a pure interface class. There is a form of runtime adapter pattern as follows, It is desired for classA to supply classB with some data. A compile time solution is, However, suppose that the format of the data must be varied.
A compile time solution is to use inheritance, and perhaps create the correctly formatting object at runtime by means of the Factory pattern, in general, it permits a mechanism for arbitrary data flows between objects that can be retrofitted to an existing object hierarchy.
When implementing the pattern, for clarity one can apply the class name ToAdapter to the provider implementation. It should have a method with an adaptee class variable as a parameter. This parameter will be passed to a member of ToAdapter. Dependency inversion principle, which can be thought of as applying the Adapter pattern, when the high-level class defines their own interface to the low-level module. Oracle Database — Oracle Database is an object-relational database management system produced and marketed by Oracle Corporation.
An Oracle database system—identified by an alphanumeric system identifier or SID—comprises at least one instance of the application, an instance—identified persistently by an instantiation number —comprises a set of operating-system processes and memory-structures that interact with the storage. In addition to storage, the database consists of online redo logs, processes can in turn archive the online redo logs into archive logs, which provide the basis for data recovery and for the physical-standby forms of data replication using Oracle Data Guard.
The Oracle RAC option uses multiple instances attached to a storage array. In version 10g, grid computing introduced shared resources where an instance can use CPU resources from another node in the grid, the advantage of Oracle RAC is that the resources on both nodes are used by the database, and each node uses its own memory and CPU. Information is shared between nodes through the virtual private network. Segments in turn one or more extents. Extents comprise groups of data blocks.
Data blocks form the units of data storage. A DBA can impose maximum quotas on storage per user within each tablespace, the partitioning feature was introduced in Oracle 8.
This allows the partitioning of tables based on different set of keys, specific partitions can then be added or dropped to help manage large data sets. Apache Derby — Apache Derby is a relational database management system developed by the Apache Software Foundation that can be embedded in Java programs and used for online transaction processing.
It has a 2. Dblook, Schema extraction tool for a Derby database, sysinfo, Utility to display version numbers and class path. Subsequently the product was renamed Cloudscape and releases were made every six months. In Informix Software, Inc. Simba Technologies — Simba Technologies Inc. For proprietary use, several paid editions are available, and offer additional functionality, MySQL is a central component of the LAMP open-source web application software stack. Its SQL parser is written in yacc, but it uses a lexical analyzer.
They are offered under GPL version 2, beginning from 28 June or to use a proprietary license, support can be obtained from the official manual. They differ in the scope of services and in price, additionally, a number of third party organisations exist to provide support and services, including MariaDB and Percona. MySQL has received positive reviews, and reviewers noticed it performs well in the average case and that the developer interfaces are there.
It has also tested to be a fast, stable and true multi-user. Notably, when migrating from a processor, the only effect that most organizations notice is that the program runs somewhat longer when it runs for the first time on the new computer. Migration consists of taking a backup from the old computer, IBM designed IBM i as a turnkey operating system, requiring little or no on-site attention from IT staff during normal operation.
For example, IBM i has a built-in DB2 database which does not require separate installation, disks are multiply redundant, and can be replaced on line without interrupting work. Hardware and software maintenance tasks are integrated, system administration has been wizard-driven for years, even before that term was defined.
This automatic self-care policy goes so far as to automatically schedule all common system maintenance, detect many failures and even order spare parts, organizations using i sometimes have sticker shock when confronting the cost of system maintenance on other systems. Another peculiar feature is that this system was one of the earliest to be object-based, unlike traditional OSes like UNIX and Windows NT there are no files, only objects of different types.
It implemented one of the systems for persistent objects. Further, the objects persist in very large, flat virtual memory, called a single-level store. In , IBM ported Node. Auxiliary storage pool Multics for an earlier system which provided persistent objects User groups have played a major part in the evolution of the IBM i.
It offers a fast, small engine which offers both in-memory and disk-based tables. Both embedded and server modes are available, additionally, it includes tools such as a minimal Web server, command line and GUI management tools, and a number of demonstration examples.
It can run on Java runtimes from version 1. It is also used in products, such as Mathematica. It supports read committed and serializable isolation levels with table level locks or with multiversion concurrency control, or a combination of locks, version 1.
The default MEMORY type stores all data changes to the disk in the form of a SQL script, during engine start-up, these commands are executed and data are reconstructed into the memory. While this behavior is not suitable for large tables, it provides highly regarded performance benefits and is easy to debug.
HSQLDB engine loads them only partially and synchronizes the data to the disk on transaction commits, however, the engine always loads all rows affected during an update into the memory.
This renders very large updates impossible without splitting the work into smaller parts, other table types allow for read-write CSV-file access and read-write non-durable in-memory data storage.
Relational database management system — A relational database management system is a database management system that is based on the relational model as invented by E.
In , many of the databases in widespread use are based on the database model. Relational databases have often replaced legacy hierarchical databases and network databases because they are easier to understand, however, relational databases have received unsuccessful challenge attempts by object database management systems in the s and s and also by XML database management systems in the s. The term relational database was invented by E. In this paper and later papers, he defined what he meant by relational, one well-known definition of what constitutes a relational database system is composed of Codds 12 rules.
The most common definition of an RDBMS is a product that presents a view of data as a collection of rows and columns, by this definition, RDBMS products typically implement some but not all of Codds 12 rules. A second school of thought argues that if a database does not implement all of Codds rules and this view, shared by many theorists and other strict adherents to Codds principles, would disqualify most DBMSs as not relational. Starting with the 4. GNU Data Access is a set of plugin APIs, defined as generic as possible, so that any kind of data source can be accessed through them, to provide uniform access to different kinds of data sources.
Libgda is mainly a database and an abstraction layer. It is a library that implements the interfaces defined by the GDA architecture and it additionally provides a bunch of tools to help with the development and the management of data sources via the GDA APIs. Libgda is a database library, features a metadata extractor comes with an SQL console application Libgda is coded in C, depends on GLib.
An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January , the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country.
Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, however, this can be rectified later. For example, the edition of Mr. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in , has SBN indicating the publisher, their serial number.
An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January , a digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a digit ISBN is also done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. The complete OTS v8. The GUI was further improved. A convenient results window now automatically pops up, displaying the results file.
A file-browser button is added to forms that can import data from other forms. Blood Makes the Grass Grow Green BMTG3 is a multi-player, side-scrolling, 1-dimensional strategy game that pits two people against each other in a duel over a stretch of land. Each player is positioned in a bunker at opposite ends of the map and tasked with deploying the right personnel and vehicles to capture FOBs forward operating bases and overrun your enemy's bunker.
Currently there are 5 different units available. Timing, unit selection, and basic strategy are all necessary for success. Code is now version controlled via Google Code with Subversion. A fancy 3D camera aim lag effect was added.
There are now 8 levels. The capability exists to do level transistions and story elements. An inno-setup installer was created for Windows installations. Some main loops were improved. The implementation is incomplete and naive, but aims to implement enough to be able to run every code sample in Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. This release supports quoting, and adds the eq? The API is deliberately similar to Matlab's. Integer, floating point, and complex numbers are supported, as well as a subset of trigonometric and statistics functions.
A delayed evaluation approach, based on template meta-programming, is used during compile time to combine several operations into one and reduce or eliminate the need for temporaries. The CDS architecture is designed to allow defining the Server behavior to be easily modified or extended.
This is achieved by a modular plug-in architecture, allowing customization at runtime without changing anything in the Server core itself. This release fixes a major bug in the previous version that appeared when launching the Editor, Server, or Client in certain configurations. This bug was not manifesting in the context of an IDE, but it prevented starting the components in a normal standalone mode.
It is similar to Java's Seasar and Spring. Resource was added for setter methods like JSR It is designed to assist project managers.
By measuring market penetration and the effect of different kinds of development on project sustainability, it can assist with decision making. The project source was restructured.
A roadmap, changelog, and notes were added. Its goal is to let you connect to the network very easily without having to create an account and join various chatrooms immediately. It tries to look like the most famous IRC clients such as weechat and irssi. Many commands are identical and you won't be lost if you already know these clients.
Configuration can be done in a configuration file or directly from the client. It embodies the light, fast, geeky, and anonymous spirit of IRC while using a new, powerful, standard, and open protocol.
This is a minor release. Ban messages are now properly displayed in the MUCs tabs. You can now join a room whose JID has no node part e. Various bugs were fixed.
Clonezilla is a partition or disk cloning tool similar to Symantec Ghost. It saves and restores only blocks in use on the hard drive if the file system is supported. For unsupported file systems, dd is used instead. It has been used to clone a 5 GB system to 40 clients in about 10 minutes.
A better PXE booting mechanism was implemented in live-boot. The partclone package was updated to 0. A bug was fixed in which multiple network cards did not honor the boot parameter of ethernet timeout. Both Tads versions in use today Tads 2 and Tads 3 are supported.