Auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars
The colonization of the Moon is a proposed establishment of permanent human communities or robotic industries   on the Moon. Discovery of lunar water at the lunar poles by Chandrayaan-1 has renewed interest in the Moon. Polar colonies could also avoid the problem of long lunar nights — about hours,  a little more than two weeks — and take advantage of the Sun continuously, at least during the local summer there is no data for the winter yet.
Permanent human habitation on a planetary body other than the Earth is one of science fiction's auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars prevalent themes. As technology has advanced, and concerns about the future of humanity on Earth have increased, the argument that space colonization as an achievable and worthwhile goal has gained momentum.
There are also various projects planned for the near future by space tourism startup companies for tourism on the Moon. The notion of a lunar colony originated before the Space Age. Inscience-fiction writer Arthur C. Clarke proposed a lunar base of inflatable modules covered in lunar dust for insulation. Subsequent steps would include the establishment of a larger, permanent dome; an algae -based air purifier ; a nuclear reactor for the provision of power; and electromagnetic cannons to launch cargo and fuel to interplanetary vessels in space.
InJohn S. Rinehart suggested that the safest design would be a structure that could "[float] in a stationary ocean of dust", since there auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars, at the time this concept was outlined, theories that there could be mile-deep dust oceans on the Moon.
Project Horizon was a study regarding the United States Army 's plan to establish a fort on the Moon by It was proposed that the first landing would be carried out by two "soldier-astronauts" in and that more construction workers would soon follow. DeNike and Zahn favored nuclear reactors for energy production, because they were more efficient than solar panelsand would also overcome the problems with the long lunar nights.
For the life support system, an algae-based gas exchanger was proposed. In Jim Burke of the International Space University in France said people should plan to preserve humanity's culture in the event of a civilization-stopping asteroid impact with Earth.
A Lunar Noah's Ark was proposed. Exploration of the lunar surface by spacecraft began in with the Soviet Union 's Luna program. Kennedy in told the U. This was mankind's first direct view of the far side. Additional missions to the Moon continued this exploration phase. However, interest in further exploration of the Moon was beginning to wane among the American public. Instead, focus was turned to the Space Shuttle and manned missions in near Earth orbit.
In addition to its scientific returns, the Apollo program also provided valuable lessons about living and working in the lunar environment. The Soviet manned lunar programs failed to send a manned mission to the Moon. Besides the manned landings, an abandoned Soviet moon program included building the moonbase " Zvezda ", which was the first detailed project with developed mockups of expedition vehicles  and surface modules.
In the decades following, interest in exploring the Moon faded considerably, and only a few dedicated enthusiasts supported a return. However, evidence of Lunar ice at the poles gathered by NASA's Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions rekindled some discussion,   as did the potential growth of a Chinese space program that contemplated its own mission to the Moon. Bush called for a plan to return manned missions to the Moon by since cancelled — see Constellation program.
The LCROSS mission was designed to acquire research information to assist with future lunar exploratory missions, and was scheduled to auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars with a controlled collision of the craft on the lunar surface.
Indue to reduced congressional NASA appropriations, President Barack Obama halted the Bush administration's earlier lunar exploration initiative, and directed a generic focus on manned missions to asteroids and Mars, as well as extending support for the International Space Station. As ofRussia is planning to begin building a human colony on the moon by Initially, the moon base will be manned by no more than 4 people, with their number later rising to maximum of 12 people.
On the Moon, the feature is seen as a widely distributed absorption that appears strongest at cooler high latitudes and at several fresh feldspathic craters. The general lack of correlation of this feature in sunlit M 3 data with neutron spectrometer H abundance data suggests that the formation and retention of OH and H 2 O is an ongoing surficial process.
The Moon Mineralogy Mapper M 3an imaging spectrometer, was one of the 11 instruments on board Chandrayaan-1, whose mission came to a premature end on 29 August Lunar scientists had discussed the possibility of water repositories for decades.
They are now increasingly "confident that the decades-long debate is over" a report says. Robert Zubrinpresident of the Mars Societyrelativized the term 'large': That represents a proportion of ten parts per million, which is a lower water concentration than that found in the soil of the driest deserts of the Earth. Zubrin's computations are not a sound basis for estimating the percentage of water in the regolith at that site.
Researchers with expertise in that area estimated that the regolith at the impact site contained 5. Hydrocarbons, material containing sulfur, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and ammonia were present.
In Marchresearchers who had previously published reports on possible abundance of water on the Moon, reported new findings that refined their predictions substantially lower. Placing a colony on a natural body would provide an ample source of material for construction and other uses in space, including shielding from cosmic radiation. The auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars required to send objects from the Moon to space is much less than from Earth to space.
This could allow the Moon to serve as a source of construction materials within auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars space. Rockets launched from the Moon would require less locally produced propellant than rockets launched from Earth. Some proposals include using electric acceleration devices mass drivers to propel objects off the Moon without building rockets. Others have proposed momentum exchange tethers see below. Furthermore, the Moon does have some gravitywhich experience to date indicates may be vital for fetal development and long-term human health.
Auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars addition, the Moon is the closest large body in the Solar System to Earth.
This proximity has several advantages:. Russian astronomer Vladislav V. Shevchenko proposed in the following three criteria that a Lunar outpost should meet: While a colony might be located anywhere, potential locations for a Lunar colony fall into three broad categories. There are two reasons why the north pole and south pole of auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars Moon might be attractive locations for a human colony. First, there is evidence for the presence of water in some continuously shaded areas near the poles.
Power collection stations could therefore be plausibly located so that at least one is exposed to sunlight at all times, thus making it possible to power polar colonies almost exclusively with solar energy. Solar power would be unavailable only during a lunar eclipsebut these events are relatively brief and absolutely predictable. Any such colony would therefore require a reserve energy supply that could temporarily sustain a colony during lunar eclipses or in the event of any incident or malfunction affecting solar power collection.
Hydrogen fuel cells would be ideal for this purpose, since the hydrogen needed could be sourced locally using the Moon's polar water and surplus solar power. Moreover, due to the Moon's uneven surface some sites have nearly continuous sunlight. For example, Malapert mountainlocated near the Shackleton crater at the Lunar south pole, offers several advantages as a site:. At the north pole, the rim of Peary Crater has been proposed as a favorable location for a base.
The interior of Peary Crater may also harbor hydrogen deposits. A  bistatic radar experiment performed during the Clementine mission suggested the presence of water ice around the south pole. A potential limitation of the polar regions is that the inflow of solar wind can create an electrical charge on the leeward side of crater rims. The resulting voltage difference can affect electrical equipment, change surface chemistry, erode surfaces and levitate Lunar dust.
The Lunar equatorial regions are likely to have higher concentrations of helium-3 rare on Earth but much sought after for use in nuclear fusion research because the solar wind has a higher angle of incidence.
The rotation advantage for launching material is slight due to the Moon's slow rotation, but the corresponding orbit coincides with the ecliptic, nearly coincides with the Lunar orbit around Earth, and nearly coincides with the equatorial plane of Earth.
Several probes have landed in the Oceanus Procellarum area. There are many areas and features that could be subject to long-term study, such as the Reiner Gamma anomaly and the dark-floored Grimaldi crater.
The Lunar far side lacks direct communication with Earth, though a communication satellite at the L 2 Lagrangian pointor a network of orbiting satellites, could enable communication between the far side of the Moon and Earth. Scientists have estimated that the highest concentrations of helium-3 will be found in the maria on the far side, as well as near side areas containing concentrations of the titanium -based mineral ilmenite.
On the near side the Earth and its magnetic field partially shields the surface from the solar wind during each orbit. But the far side is fully exposed, and thus should receive a somewhat greater proportion of the ion stream. Lunar lava tubes are a potential location for constructing a Lunar base.
Any intact lava tube on the Moon could serve as a shelter from the severe environment of the Lunar surface, with its frequent meteorite impacts, auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars ultra-violet radiation and energetic particles, and extreme diurnal temperature variations. Lava tubes provide ideal positions for shelter because of their access to nearby resources.
They also have proven themselves as a reliable structure, having withstood the test of time for billions of years. An underground colony would escape the extreme of temperature on the Moon's surface. One such lava tube was discovered in early There have been numerous proposals regarding habitat modules.
The designs have evolved throughout the years as mankind's knowledge about the Moon has grown, and as the technological possibilities have changed. The proposed habitats range from the actual spacecraft landers or their used fuel tanks, to inflatable modules of various shapes. Some hazards of the Lunar environment such as sharp temperature shifts, lack of atmosphere or magnetic field which means higher levels of radiation and micrometeoroids and long nights, were unknown early on.
Proposals have shifted as these hazards were recognized and taken into consideration. Some suggest building the Lunar colony underground, which would give protection from radiation and micrometeoroids. This would also greatly auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars the risk of air leakage, as the colony would be fully sealed from the outside except for a few exits to the surface.
The construction of an underground base would probably be more complex; one of the first machines from Earth might be a remote-controlled excavating machine. Once created, some sort of hardening would be necessary to avoid collapse, possibly a spray-on concrete -like substance made from available materials. Inflatable self-sealing fabric habitats might then be put in place to retain auto binary options secrets earn money every 60 seconds to mars.
Eventually an underground city can be constructed. Farms set up underground would need artificial sunlight. As an alternative to excavating, a lava tube could be covered and insulated, thus solving the problem of radiation exposure.
A possibly easier solution would be to build the Lunar base on the surface, and cover the modules with Lunar soil. The Lunar regolith is composed of a unique blend of silica and iron-containing compounds that may be fused into a glass-like solid using microwave energy.
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Authors' contributions AA designed the study, applied the ACG software, carried out the first calculations of the results and drafted the manuscript. VM rechecked and revised statistical analysis with assistance from BM.
EG processed and prepared the databases before being analyzed. AS and JS converted the ICPC-2 codes into ICD-9-MC codes.